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نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:دوشنبه 28 دی 1394-12:14 ب.ظ

ESSAY 16: 'independence' question

Some people think that in the modern world we are more dependent on each other, while others think that people have become more independent. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

People have different views about whether we are more or less dependent on others nowadays. In my view, modern life forces us to be more independent than people were in the past.

There are two main reasons why it could be argued that we are more dependent on each other now. Firstly, life is more complex and difficult, especially because the cost of living has increased so dramatically. For example, young adults tend to rely on their parents for help when buying a house. Property prices are higher than ever, and without help it would be impossible for many people to pay a deposit and a mortgage. Secondly, people seem to be more ambitious nowadays, and they want a better quality of life for their families. This means that both parents usually need to work full-time, and they depend on support from grandparents and babysitters for child care.

However, I would agree with those who believe that people are more independent these days. In most countries, families are becoming smaller and more dispersed, which means that people cannot count on relatives as much as they used to. We also have more freedom to travel and live far away from our home towns. For example, many students choose to study abroad instead of going to their local university, and this experience makes them more independent as they learn to live alone. Another factor in this growing independence is technology, which allows us to work alone and from any part of the world.

In conclusion, while there are some reasons to believe that people now depend on each other more, my own view is that we are more independent than ever.


نوع مطلب : ESSAY سوالات  

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نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:دوشنبه 28 دی 1394-12:10 ب.ظ

ESSAY 15: 'happiness' essay

Happiness is considered very important in life.
Why is it difficult to define?
What factors are important in achieving happiness?

It is true that the majority of people would like to be happy in their lives. While the personal nature of happiness makes it difficult to describe, there do seem to be some common needs that we all share with regard to experiencing or achieving happiness.

Happiness is difficult to define because it means something different to each individual person. Nobody can fully understand or experience another person’s feelings, and we all have our own particular passions from which we take pleasure. Some people, for example, derive a sense of satisfaction from earning money or achieving success, whereas for others, health and family are much more important. At the same time, a range of other feelings, from excitement to peacefulness, may be associated with the idea of happiness, and the same person may therefore feel happy in a variety of different ways.

Although it seems almost impossible to give a precise definition of happiness, most people would agree that there are some basic preconditions to achieving it. Firstly, it is hard for a person to be happy if he or she does not have a safe place to live and enough food to eat. Our basic survival needs must surely be met before we can lead a pleasant life. Secondly, the greatest joy in life is usually found in shared experiences with family and friends, and it is rare to find a person who is content to live in complete isolation. Other key factors could be individual freedom and a sense of purpose in life.

In conclusion, happiness is difficult to define because it is particular to each individual, but I believe that our basic needs for shelter, food and company need to be fulfilled before we can experience it.

(292 words, band 9)

نوع مطلب : ESSAY سوالات  

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نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:سه شنبه 22 دی 1394-10:22 ق.ظ


These days, more fathers stay at home and take care of their children while mothers go out to work.

What could be the reasons for this? Do you think it is a positive or a negative development?

It is true that men are increasingly likely to take on the role of househusband, while more women than ever are the breadwinners in their families. There could be several reasons for this, and I consider it to be a very positive trend.

In recent years, parents have had to adapt to various changes in our societies. Equal rights movements have made great progress, and it has become normal for women to gain qualifications and pursue a career. It has also become socially acceptable for men to stay at home and look after their children. At the same time, the rising cost of living has meant that both marriage partners usually need to work and save money before starting a family. Therefore, when couples have children, they may decide who works and who stays at home depending on the personal preference of each partner, or based on which partner earns the most money.

In my view, the changes described above should be seen as progress. We should be happy to live in a society in which men and women have equal opportunities, and in which women are not put under pressure to sacrifice their careers. Equally, it seems only fair that men should be free to leave their jobs in order to assume childcare responsibilities if this is what they wish to do. Couples should be left to make their own decisions about which parental role each partner takes, according to their particular circumstances and needs.

In conclusion, the changing roles of men and women in the family are a result of wider changes in society, and I believe that these developments are desirable.

(274 words, band 9)

نوع مطلب : ESSAY سوالات  

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نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:سه شنبه 22 دی 1394-10:08 ق.ظ


Research shows that global warming is caused by human activity. What are the possible effects of climate change and what can governments and individuals do to reduce these?

There is now little doubt that global warming and climate change are the result of human activity. This has happened because of a failure in environmental policy by governments and a lack of concern for wasted energy by individuals.

It is almost universally accepted that climate change is the consequence of a number of environmental failings. Perhaps the most important of these is how fossil fuels such as gas and coal are still the main source of power. This is a problem because their use means that a large amount of CO2 is released into the atmosphere causing the greenhouse effect. Another serious issue is how illegal logging continues in rainforests and the Amazon Basin in particular. It should also not be forgotten that there is a connection between global warming and the inefficient use of energy by consumers in the home.

While governments must take prime responsibility for reducing climate change, individuals too can play a part. Political leaders across the globe need to cooperate so that research into renewable forms of energy such as wind and solar power is properly funded and the use of coal and gas in power stations is phased out. They must also of course ensure that regulations against logging are properly enforced. Consumers of energy can help by insulating their homes properly and using solar panels where possible so that less energy is required and wasted. These actions should limit the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and so reduce the greenhouse effect.

In conclusion, while global warming is a serious threat to humanity, there are a number of steps that can be taken to reduce its effects


نوع مطلب : ESSAY سوالات  

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نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:سه شنبه 22 دی 1394-09:58 ق.ظ


Levels of youth crime are increasing rapidly in most cities around the world.

What are the reasons for this, and suggest some solutions.

Over the last few decades, many cities around the world have seen alarming increases in the levels of youth crime. This essay will discuss the reasons for this and provide some possible solutions.

The first reason is connected with the family. In order for a child to grow up in a balanced way, it is very important that he or she is nurtured well by his or her parents. However, these days, it is often the case that children are neglected. This may be because of the fact that many parents in cities now both have to work so are often not around to give their children support when needed. Another factor is the increasing levels of poverty around the world. We have seen with globalization the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, and this inevitably means that those who are poorer will have to resort to illegal means to get what others have. Of course, this will include the children in the poorer families.

However, there are ways to tackle such problems. Firstly, one of the ways to combat the problem is to have stricter punishments. Although, as discussed above, it can be outside factors that lead to crime, it is still important to have severe punishments to deter teenagers from crime. All too often, because they are young, the courts are too lenient. Parents also have to take more responsibility for their children’s actions. They too should be punished if their children commit crime.

To sum up, several factors have led to increases in youth crime, but measures are available to tackle this problem.

(267 words)



The topic is clearly stated in the general statement of the introduction, and the thesis tells the reader that reasons and solutions will be discussed.

It is organized well, with reasons for youth crime discussed in the first body paragraph and solutions in the next. Each paragraph has two ideas and they are clearly signaled and well supported.

There are some good complex structures (In order for…, often the case that…, means that…,) and some good examples of topic related vocabulary (nurtured…, neglected…, illegal…, severe punishments…, deter…, commit crime…).


نوع مطلب : ESSAY سوالات  

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Wh-Cleft Sentences

نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:دوشنبه 14 دی 1394-11:27 ق.ظ

Pseudo-cleft sentences


Pseudo-cleft sentences (also called wh-clefts) are similar in function to cleft sentences, but they are formed with the pronoun what (= the thing(s) that/which). The emphasis in a pseudo-cleft sentence is on the phrase after the what-clause + be:

What you need is a good sleep.
What I didn't like was the end of the movie.
What changed his mind was a book he'd read.

If we want to refer to a person, we say The person/people who/that:

The people who/that I met were members of the delegation.

If we want to emphasise an action, the verb after be usually takes the form that corresponds to the form used in the what-clause: 

What you should do is write a letter to the manager.
What I need to do is get some rest. 
What they were doing was arguing about which train to take.
What I can do is call for a taxi.

In the following examples, the verb after be takes the form that the verb in the what-clause is normally followed by:

What I want is to sleep
What he can't stand is getting up early.

In the past simple and present perfect, we can use the following patterns: 

What I did in the end was (to) go home.
What I have done is (to) write a letter to the editor.

نوع مطلب : گرامر 

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نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:دوشنبه 14 دی 1394-11:17 ق.ظ

از این ساختار جهت تاكید بر بخشی از جمله  (فاعل یا مفعول یا قید) استفاده كنید

IT-Cleft sentences


Cleft sentences (also called it-clefts) result from changing the normal sentence pattern to emphasise a particular piece of information. The emphasis in the resulting cleft sentence is on the phrase after it + be.

Look at the following example:

János Irinyi invented the non-explosive match in 1836.

We can transform this sentence in different ways depending on which part of it we want to bring into focus:

It was János Irinyi who/that invented the non-explosive match in 1836.
It was the non-explosive match which/that/(-) János Irinyi invented in 1836.
It was 1836 when János Irinyi invented the non-explosive match.

In the clauses that follow it + be + phrase, we can use the same relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why) that we normally use in defining relative clauses.

However, if we bring a whole adverbial phrase into focus, we use that:

It was in 1836 that János Irinyi invented the non-explosive match.

If we use a personal pronoun after it + be, it will be in the object form:

It was him who invented the non-explosive match in 1836.

It is also possible to expand the phrase in focus with a non-defining relative clause:

It was János Irinyi, who was a Hungarian chemist, that invented the non-explosive match in 1836.

نوع مطلب : گرامر 

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نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:یکشنبه 6 دی 1394-09:49 ق.ظ

Complex Sentences

Understanding complex sentences and knowing how to write them is crucial for IELTS.

The examiner will not award you above a band 5 for 'grammatical range and accuracy' if you cannot write them or if you have a very limited ability to write them.

This is the marking criteria for a band 6 for grammar:

  • Uses a mix of simple and complex sentence forms
  • Makes some errors in grammar and punctuation but they rarely reduce communication

So you must have a mix of complex sentence forms, though some errors in them are acceptable.

If, for example, you learned a couple of complex structures and used the same ones throughout your essay, this would not demonstrate a 'mix'.

For the higher band scores, you will need to show a greater range and more accuracy.

In order to understand a complex sentence, you need to understand independent and dependent clauses (look at this previous lesson on clauses if you are unsure what they are).


What are independent and dependent clauses?

A clause is a group of words with a subject and verb. This is adependent clause:

...because it was raining so hard.

If something or someone is 'dependent' then it needs or relies on something else for aid, support, life etc.

For example, a baby is dependent on its mother. Without the mother the baby cannot survive.

In a similar way, a dependent clause cannot 'survive' on its own. It relies on something else. The clause above "....because it was raining so hard" cannot be used on its own as a sentence because it does not make sense.

In order to function, it needs an independent clause. An independent clause can function on its own as a sentence:

I took my umbrella.

This has meaning so is ok on its own. It makes a simple sentence.

If we now join this independent clause with the dependent clause, we have a complex sentence that has meaning:

I took my umbrella because it was raining so hard.


Types of complex sentence

Complex sentences have three types:

  1. Adverbial Clauses
  2. Relative Clauses
  3. Noun Clauses

نوع مطلب : گرامر 

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نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:یکشنبه 6 دی 1394-09:42 ق.ظ

Adverbial Clauses

In this lesson we will look in more detail at adverbial clauses.

These clauses are a type of complex sentence, so it is essential that you are able to use them in your writing and speaking if you want to achieve a good band score.

The examiner will be monitoring your speaking and writing closely to assess how well you know them.

In the table below you can see the most common types of adverbs used to make adverbial clauses.

You can also see what they are used for and some example sentences.


Types of Adverbial Clause

Time Clauses

In reference to a period of time or another event

He arrived before I did.

After I have finished studying, I intend to work abroad.

As the climate gets hotter, sea levels will rise.

I will keep learning English for as long as it is necessary.

While I am studying, I usually listen to the radio.

Rates of obesity increase when too much junk food is eaten.

Since I started going to fitness, I have lost 5 kilos.

I will keep learning English until I am upper intermediate.

Conditional Clauses

Expressing a hypothesis or condition, real or imagined

If we clone humans, it may have terrible consequences.

What would you buy if you won the lottery?

Our food will not be safe unless GM crops are banned.

Reason Clauses

To explain why

My English is not improving because I am not studying enough.

Since the government cut spending, poverty has increased.

Pollution is increasing as there are too many cars.

Purpose Clauses

To show the purpose of doing something

I am studying IELTS in order to attend university abroad.

He went to the gym so that he could lose weight.

Concession Clauses

To show contrast between two statements, or surprise.

Although e-readers are popular, most people still prefer books.

The Minister wants to increase taxes though his party disagrees.

Even though I studied every day, I didn't get the score I needed (surprising)

Internet usage increased, while phone usage decreased.*

Whereas you have a lot of time to study, I do not.*


To talk about location of position

Wherever he goes, I will go.

I am not sure where I put my pen.


نوع مطلب : گرامر 

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نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:یکشنبه 6 دی 1394-09:31 ق.ظ


Phrasal Verb Get


get something across/Make understandable or communicate 
It took him ages to get his point across
get aroundTo go or travel to different places
 گشتن  و دیدن مكانهای یك شهر
It's quite easy to get around London
get awayTo go on holiday / vacation
رفتن به تعطیلات
Will you manage to get away this summer
get back at someoneTo get revenge انتقام گرفتن
get back intoBecome interested in something again
get byTo have just enough of something such as money or knowledge
گذراندن از لحظ مالی
I don't earn a huge salary but we get by
get down toStart doing something seriously or with a lot of effort
get over somethingRecover from something, like an illness or a problem
get round tosomethingTo find time to do something
پیدا كردن وقت برای انجام كاری
I still haven't got round to fix the tap
get throughTo survive something
پشت سر گذاشتن شرایط دشوار
The refugees need help to get through the winter
get togetherSocial meeting
get upGet out of bed

نوع مطلب : لغت 

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نویسنده :بهنام فرقانی
تاریخ:یکشنبه 6 دی 1394-09:25 ق.ظ


Phrasal Verb


hand (something) inSubmit  تحویل چیزی به یك مقام مسئول
Did you hand your homework in on time?
get away with (something)Do something without being noticed or punished  
قصر در رفتن
They broke the law and broke with it
keep up withContinue at the same rate
end upTo become eventually; turn out to be
منجر شدن به چیزی
Most slimmers end up putting weight back on
fall behindTo fail to keep up a pace; lag behind.
drop outQuit a class, school, university etc 
انصراف از یك محل
look back onThink about something that happened in the past  نگاه به گذشته
Looking back on it, I still can't figure out what went wrong
put forwardSuggest or state the case for something
catch up withReach the same level  
رسیدن به بقیه در یك كلاس یا رقابت
pull out ofTo stop being a part of something


Phrasal Verb Exercises - Examples in Context

 Were you a good student when you were at school?

I’m afraid I wasn’t if I’m honest. Often I didn’t hand in my homework, and I always felt I could get away with it because my teacher wasn’t strict. But because of this I couldn’t keep up with the course work and I ended up falling behind.  Eventually I had to drop out of the school.

So no, I wasn’t really a good student.  When I look back on my childhood, I wish I’d done things differently really as it meant I had to work harder to achieve things later on in life.


Do you think the growth in multinational corporations is a positive development?

I’m not sure it is such a good thing. Many people put forward arguments in favour it, claiming it has helped developing countries by creating jobs for local people as many of these companies have moved their manufacturing abroad. They then claim that the economic development in these countries will catch up with developed countries.

However, there is no real evidence that this is the case as most the profit flows back to the companies, not the people, and as soon as it becomes cheaper to manufacture in a different country, the companies will pull out of the country they are in and move to the more profitable one. So I don’t think there is any real long-term benefit.

نوع مطلب : لغت 

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